Analytical summary - Medical products, vaccines, infrastructures and equipment
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The pharmaceuticals supply core process started in Ethiopia in 2009 with the transformation of the profit-making Pharmaceutical and Medical Supplies Import and Distribution Agency into the service-providing Pharmaceutical Fund and Supply Agency.
The Pharmaceutical Fund and Supply Agency initiated capacity-building activities in terms of:
- revolving drug funds
- construction of hubs and transportation systems
- deployment of human resources
- designing a logistics management information system.
The Agency's health and health-related services, product regulation and policy documents have been refined, and a new proclamation is being prepared. Drug manufacturing plants and factories have been inspected for good manufacturing practices.
A national list for procurement of essential pharmaceuticals is being developed, in collaboration with regions and development partners. The Pharmaceutical Fund and Supply Agency now handles bulk procurement, storage and distribution of pharmaceuticals. Distribution utilizes a network of 16 hubs and warehouses, their location based on population density and operational feasibility.
Quality and safety control is approved by the Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Control Authority of Ethiopia. To improve the supply and rational use of pharmaceuticals, drug and therapeutic committees have been established in health facilities.
To organize health facilities based on the new three-tier health service structure, health facility standards on architectural, structural, electrical, sanitary and other accessories were endorsed in 2010. Installation of solar power in health posts was initiated in 2009, with an agreement between the Rural Energy Development Centre and the Ministry of Health.
To achieve universal primary health care coverage by the end of 2010, the Ministry agreed to supply medical equipment for all newly constructed health centres. In addition, an agreement was made between the Ministry and regional health bureaus to construct 75% and 25% of health centres, respectively.
To identify the current status and establish a medical equipment management system, an assessment of existing medical equipment distribution, maintenance and workshops was carried out, along with an assessment of the human resources of newly constructed health facilities.
A national directive of medical equipment on donation has been prepared, with the participation of all stakeholders and development partners.
In 2010, a human resource information system was implemented and upgraded in the Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, regional health bureaus and nine hospitals. Based on the new Civil Service Ministry endorsement, personnel data are held in electronic records and a human resource information system licence has been installed at the Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Control Authority of Ethiopia and at seven regional health bureaus.
Training on basic cold chain system maintenance and vaccine management has been given to 148 technicians. Procurement and distribution of spare parts used in the cold chain system, mainly refrigerator parts, has also been carried out in the regions.
Blood transfusion management, previously under the authority of the Ethiopian Red Cross Society, has been transferred to the Federal Ministry of Health. However, the Ethiopian Red Cross Society still collaborates with the Ministry to ensure an adequate and safe supply of blood. Following the approval of 59 posts for blood collection by the Ministry of Civil Service, a total of 47 000 units of blood have been collected.