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Country Summary

Zimbabwe

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This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Namibia

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The arid regions of Erongo, Hardap, Khomas and Karas are considered free of malaria transmission and almost risk-free. Some risk exists in the southern regions, but it is uncertain whether the cases reported in these areas are imported or locally acquired. The areas of high transmission and population density are located along the northern border of the country. (MoHSS, December 2010) In 2008 there were 128,531 (62/1,000) reported outpatient malaria cases and 5,233 (0.9/1,000) inpatient cases. A total of 199 deaths were reported in the same year. (HMIS data of August 2010) Transmission risk is currently estimated between 15% in low risk areas and 55% in high risk areas. (MoHSS, December 2010).

The National Vector-borne Diseases Control Programme (NVDCP) was introduced in 1991 and supported by the National Policy and Strategy for Malaria Control in 1995 (MoHSS, 1995). In 2006 a policy of parasitological diagnosis using Rapid Diagnosis tests (RDTs) was introduced.

The National Vector-borne Diseases Control Programme (NVDCP) has successfully introduced and rapidly scaled up all malaria control interventions, prioritizing high risk districts and achieving overall MDG targets of halving morbidity and mortality. Trends in outpatient cases, inpatient cases, and deaths exhibit a decline of 78 percent, 87 percent, and 88 percent respectively between 2001 and 2008.

Following the success of malaria control over the last ten years, and remarkable declines in local transmission of the disease, Namibia has also been recognized as one of four countries in southern Africa that is well positioned to reorient the malaria program from a malaria control program to an elimination program.

The current Malaria Strategic Plan 2010-2016 is a pre-elimination plan which aims to make a major impact on transmission and reducing incidence to less than 1 case per 1,000 in each district by 2016; this will position Namibia to follow through with the complete interruption of indigenous transmission by 2020. (MoHSS, November 2010).

The five strategic interventions set out in the plan are: The five strategic interventions set out in the plan are: programme and operations management; diagnosis and case management; surveillance, epidemic preparedness and response; integrated vector control; behaviour change communication and community mobilisation. (MoHSS, November 2010).

A National Malaria Elimination Task Force will be formed to oversee implementation with support from technical working groups. The NVDCP, an independent programme within the directorate Special Programs (DSP) in Windhoek and Oshakati, will coordinate day-to-day activities and inputs from partners. The programme will be rolled out using a decentralised approach including capacity building at district and community level. A new staff establishment for the NVDCP is proposed to address critical shortfalls in programme management and technical capacity. The team is currently funded jointly by the MoHSS and donors, but the goal is to eventually shift all posts so that they can be fully sustained by the MoHSS. At the regional level Regional Malaria Elimination Coordinators and Regional Clinic Mentors are proposed and District Malaria Elimination Officers are needed to support EHOs who currently conduct malaria activities under PHC.

The implementation of the elimination effort requires unprecedented support from all stakeholders and partners, including implementing partners that have capacity in laboratory systems, quality assurance systems, research, procurement and supply management, and behaviour change communication. (MoHSS, November 2010) In March of 2009, Namibia hosted the Inaugural meeting of the Elimination 8, a mechanism for eight Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries which have similarly committed to forging a sub-regional alliance to launch a united intensive offensive against malaria. Namibia will work with its neighbouring countries and development partners to contribute to the malaria elimination goals of the eight individual countries, and the sub-region as a whole. In particular, it will work closely with its neighbours to put in place programs that increase access to malaria interventions in the border districts (MoHSS, November 2010).

The total budget for the 2010-2016 strategic plan is US$93,052,380, to be met by the Namibian Government, together with development partners and other local and international stakeholders. (MoHSS, November 2010).

Systems that are currently used for malaria data collection are the Health Managaement Information System (HMIS), Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system, and the weekly routine malaria surveillance system. Surveillance of malaria has previously been passive and focussed on data collection for monitoring and evaluation. With the new push towards elimination, surveillance will become a key intervention in the identification/diagnosis of cases and infections to map malaria foci for effective targeting of interventions and interruption of onwards transmission. The objective is therefore to strengthen the passive system and then create an active system. Regional Surveillance Officers are required in order to achieve this. (MoHSS, November 2010)

Mozambique

A malária continua sendo o principal desafio de saúde pública e para o desenvolvimento sustentável em Moçambique. Apesar do decréscimo acentuado do peso da malária nos últimos três anos, esta doença para além do impacto directo na saúde na população, ainda exerce um peso sócio-económico enorme nas comunidades e no país em geral, perpetuando desta forma o ciclo vicioso de doença/pobreza sobre tudo nas comunidades rurais, desfavorecidas e pobres.

Como referido anteriormente, o número de casos de malária tem reduzido de forma significativa. Dados dos últimos 3 anos são evidência disso. Em 2008 foram registados 5.168.684 casos de malária notificados e 3.191 mortes por causa da malária contra 4.020.574 e 2.786 casos e mortes, respectivamente. Esta redução de casos notificados de malária pode ser atribuída ao conjunto de esforços do Programa Nacional de Combate da Malária (PNCM), com especial destaque para a consolidação das actividades de pulverização intra-domiciliária (PIDOM) nos distritos e cidades alvo, assim como, a distribuição de redes mosquiteiras impregnadas com insecticida de longa duração (RMIILD), e o tratamento intermitente preventivo (TIP) da mulher grávida, também constituíram elementos chave para a redução da malária.

Mauritius

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This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Mauritania

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Mali

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Sierra_Leone

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Kenya

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Analytical summary

Disease burden

Intervention policies and strategies

Implementing malaria control

Financing malaria control

State of surveillance

Impact of malaria control interventions

Endnotes: sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

Guinea-Bissau

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Cas de paludisme notifiés (en milliers), en Guinée-Bissau et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008
Cas de paludisme notifiés en milliers, en Guinée-Bissau et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Gambia

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Analytical summary

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Malaria has remained a major cause of morbidity in the Gambia although it is on the decline. In 2001, 39% of under-five visits and 5% of antenatal consultations at child and reproductive health clinics were due to malaria with mortality rates of 3.6% and 2.3%, respectively.[1] Malaria accounted for 78% of all outpatients visits and 58% of all inpatient admissions in 2003.[2]

Policies on malaria control cover preventive as well as curative aspects of malaria control, with emphasis on partnerships as an important component. The current policy builds on the principle of scaling-up for universal access. Thus all those at risk of the disease, with particular emphasis on young children and pregnant women, will have access to the most suitable combinations of preventive and curative measures against malaria. Implementation of the National Malaria Control Programme is at four levels, namely central, regional, health facility and community levels. Each of these levels has functional structures and responsibilities.


Disease burden

Intervention policies and strategies

Implementing malaria control

Financing malaria control

State of surveillance

Impact of malaria control interventions

Endnotes: sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

References

  1. Malaria situational analysis report, 2002
  2. Banjul, Government of the Gambia, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, 2004

Ghana

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Notified cases of malaria, in thousands, in Ghana and neighboring countries, 2008
Notified cases of malaria, in thousands, in Ghana and neighboring countries, 2008.JPG

Niger

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This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Nigeria

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Seychelles

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This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Zambia

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Uganda

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Togo

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Tanzania

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Swaziland

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

South_Sudan

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This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

South_Africa

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Senegal

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Rwanda

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Sao_Tome_and_Principe

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Cas de paludisme notifiés (en milliers) au Sao Tomé-et-principe et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008
Cas de paludisme notifies en milliers au Sao Tome-et-principe et dans les pays limitrophes 2008.JPG

Guinea

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Cas de paludisme notifiés (en milliers), en Guinée et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008
Cas de paludisme notifiés en milliers, en Guinée et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Gabon

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

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La lutte contre le paludisme est l’un des axes prioritaires de la politique de la santé, cette maladie étant toujours répertoriée au Gabon comme la plus meurtrière. Elle reste en effet la première cause de mortalité dans le pays, toutes pathologies confondues.

Les femmes enceintes et les enfants de 0 à 5 ans constituent le groupe le plus vulnérable. La lutte contre le paludisme au Gabon, telle que déclinée dans le Plan stratégique quinquennal 2006-2010, souscrit aux principes promus mondialement par le Roll Back Malaria Partnership.

Ce Plan stratégique précise que « la conception, planification, coordination des activités ainsi que la gestion sont assurées par le niveau central à travers le Programme national de lutte contre le paludisme et les autres organes d’appui, et les partenaires »1.

Charge de morbidité

Politiques et stratégies d'intervention

Application du controle du paludisme

Financement du controle du paludisme

Etat de la surveillance

Impact des interventions de controle du paludisme

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Botswana

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Analytical summary

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Malaria is a notifiable disease endemic in the northern part of Botswana and is second to diarrhoea in the number of death recorded over the years. Transmission mainly occurs in five districts. Even though malaria is a seasonal disease, trends in clinical and laboratory diagnoses suggest that the disease occurs throughout the year. The malaria vector in Botswana is the Anopheles mosquito and the main parasite is Plasmodium falciparum, which is responsible for over 98% of cases. Other parasites are P. ovale and P. malariae.

Diagnosis is based on a set of clinical criteria, supplemented by detection of the parasite in the blood. Epidemics occurred in 1988, 1993, 1996 and 1997. Since then, the disease burden has gone down, with a progressive decline in the prevalence and number of deaths (see figure). In line with the regional and international efforts, Botswana has made a commitment to achieve universal coverage and to eliminate malaria by 2015. Recent Government of Botswana's initiatives have been the development of:


Disease burden

Intervention policies and strategies

Implementing malaria control

Financing malaria control

State of surveillance

Impact of malaria control interventions

Endnotes: sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

References

Benin

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Compte tenu de sa situation géographique, le Bénin est un pays caractérisé par des pathologies tropicales variées avec une prédominance des affections endémo-épidémiques dont la plus importante est le paludisme avec des recrudescences saisonnières. Les femmes enceintes et les enfants de moins de 5 ans constituent les groupes les plus vulnérables et sont exposés aux formes graves de la maladie. Toutes les tranches d’âges sont aussi touchées par le paludisme comme le montre la figure1 ci-dessous : Fig14 palu.jpg

Figure 1 : Répartition des cas de paludisme par tranches d’âge de 2006 à 2009

Source : PNLP, MS-Bénin, 2010

Angola

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Notified cases of malaria, in million, in Angola and neighboring countries, 2008
Notified cases of malaria in million in Angola and neighboring countries 2008.JPG

...: No data

Algeria

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Notified cases of malaria, in millions, in Algeria and neighboring countries, 2008
Notified cases of malaria in millions in Algeria and neighboring countries 2008.JPG

...: No data

Malawi

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Madagascar

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

Liberia

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The National Malaria Control Programme has the mandate to plan, implement and coordinate malaria control activities in Liberia. Despite tremendous progress to reduce malaria-related morbidity and mortality, malaria remains a major public health problem. Though the disease is preventable and curable, it takes its greatest toll on young children and pregnant women.

In an effort to reduce the malaria burden, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare introduced a policy and strategic plan for malaria control and prevention. The measures laid out in the National Malaria Strategic Plan 2010–2015 attempt to fulfil the objective of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by 50% by the year 2010 as set out by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership and WHO.

Lesotho

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on malaria is structured as follows:

4.3.1 Analytical summary
4.3.2 Disease burden
4.3.3 Intervention policies and strategies
4.3.4 Implementing malaria control
4.3.5 Financing malaria control
4.3.6 State of surveillance
4.3.7 Impact of malaria control interventions

AFRO

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Analytical summary

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The greatest disease burden from malaria occurs in the WHO African Region, where 89% of all malaria deaths worldwide took place in 2008. Over the past 20 years, malaria has been rising in importance on the public health agenda, following a number of high-level measures at national and international level.

The most commonly used intervention policies and strategies for prevention and treatment include use of:


Disease burden

Malaria mortality rate per 100 000 population in the WHO African Region, 2009

Of all WHO regions, the African Region is most severely affected by malaria. It accounted for 85% of the estimated 243 million malaria episodes and 89% of the malaria deaths worldwide in 2008. On average, malaria accounts for 25%–45% of all outpatient clinic attendance, and between 20% and 45% of all hospital admissions. Furthermore, it is estimated that malaria represents 17% of the mortality rate of children aged under 5 years in the Region.


Intervention policies and strategies

The key malaria interventions comprise:

  • vector control using insecticide-treated nets
  • indoor residual spraying
  • intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy
  • effective treatment using WHO-recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy.

Implemented at country level, these interventions are supported by global, regional, national and subnational partnerships.

Implementing malaria control

Since 1991, various initiatives, resolutions and meetings have placed malaria at the top of the public health agenda. In 1998, the Roll Back Malaria Initiative was launched to advocate for and coordinate malaria control efforts, with the aim of halving the malaria burden by 2010. The Roll Back Malaria Initiative generated increased commitment to malaria prevention and control, culminating in the African Union Heads of State call in Abuja in 2006 for universal access to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria services by 2010, and the call for malaria elimination. This was followed by the UN Secretary-General’s call for 100% malaria control coverage by 2010.

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are among the most cost-effective malaria control interventions. Most ITNs are available on a free or subsidized basis, whereby distribution is frequently linked to antenatal care services, routine immunization services or integrated child survival campaigns. Between 2006 and 2009, over 170 million nets had been distributed in the WHO African Region – sufficient to protect 48% of the population at risk of malaria, on the assumption that one net covers two people.

Data from recent surveys indicate that ITN use has increased across the Region. It is estimated that in 2008, 30% of households owned at least one ITN. However, household ownership was shown to exceed 60% in Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Mali, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal and Zambia. Use of ITNs by children aged under 5 years was estimated at 24%. ITN use by pregnant women is similar to that of children aged under 5 years. However, the percentage of children and pregnant women using nets remains significantly below the 80% target identified by the World Health Assembly.

Historically, indoor residual spraying has mostly been deployed in countries with low or unstable transmission of malaria in southern Africa. Since 2005, indoor residual spraying has been deployed progressively in over 20 countries of the Region. The number of people protected by indoor residual spraying more than doubled between 2006 and 2008, rising from 15 million to 59 million. This represented about 9% of the population at risk of malaria in the WHO African Region in 2008. Countries that were able to protect more than 15% of the population at risk in 2008 included Botswana (38%), Equatorial Guinea (56%), Ethiopia (51%), Madagascar (32%), Mozambique (30%), Namibia (16%) and Zambia (47%).

By the end of 2007, intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy had been adopted in all the 35 endemic countries for which this strategy was recommended, and 20 countries were implementing it countrywide. In 2007–2008, the estimated percentage of women who received two doses of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy was 20%, ranging from 3% in Angola to 66% in Zambia.

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is now the treatment of choice in 42 of the 43 malaria-endemic countries. Of these, 20 countries are implementing ACTs countrywide. The number of ACT treatment courses procured per year has increased markedly, rising from 31 million doses in 2005 to 160 million doses in 2009. Data from 13 surveys conducted in 2007–2008 show that although on average 32% of children with fever received antimalarial treatment, only 16% were treated with ACT. Moreover, less than 60% of these treatments were obtained from health facilities.

Only Tanzania (22%) and Gabon (25%) exceeded 15% for ACT treatment, with most countries registering less than 5%. As with ITN use, this is well below the World Health Assembly target of 80%. The continued use of artemisinin monotherapy, particularly in the private sector, remains a major setback, potentially contributing to the emergence of resistance and to shortening the useful therapeutic life of ACT.

Malaria treatment is still characterized by gross overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Studies have shown that between 32% and 96% of febrile patients receive antimalarial treatment without parasitological diagnosis. In some cases it has been shown that only 30% of febrile patients receiving ACT are proven to have malaria. Such improper diagnostic practices undermine the correct management of both malaria and fevers due to other causes.

Although progress has been made in malaria control by most countries, none has attained the internationally agreed targets of universal access to essential prevention and control interventions.

Financing malaria control

International funding commitments for malaria control have increased from approximately US $ 0.3 billion in 2003 to US $ 1.7 billion in 2009. This increase is largely due to the emergence of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, and greater commitments by governments, the President’s Malaria Initiative, The World Bank and other stakeholders. This increase in funding has resulted in a dramatic scaling-up of malaria control interventions in many settings, with measurable reductions in the malaria burden.

State of surveillance

Robust surveillance, monitoring and evaluation systems are essential if countries are to assess progress in combating malaria. Countries in the WHO African Region depend on health management information systems and integrated disease surveillance and response for reporting malaria morbidity and mortality. Household surveys provide data on malaria control intervention coverage.

These systems are still weak in most countries, with the result that reporting is incomplete. Assessment of the impact of malaria control interventions is therefore estimated on the basis of modelling techniques. In addition, not all countries of the Region conduct surveys at the same time. Consequently, coverage estimates are made based on data collected during the same time period.

Impact of malaria control interventions

Rapid impact in malaria control, shown in declining morbidity and mortality figures, is possible where a comprehensive package of malaria prevention and control interventions is implemented at the same time. In some countries that have achieved high coverage with insecticide-treated nets and treatment programmes, recorded cases and deaths due to malaria have fallen by 50%. These include Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland, Zanzibar (in United Republic of Tanzania) and Zambia.

Endnotes: sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

The English content will be available soon.

Liste des tableaux / figures

Atlas Figure 74: cas notifiés de paludisme, en 1000, dans la Région africaine, par pays, 2008. Atlas Figure 77: Proportion d'enfants de moins de 5 ans avec fièvre traités avec des médicaments antipaludiques dans la Région africaine, par pays, 2005-2009 et 2000-2004.


Références (ouvrages consultés)

World Malaria Report 2009 http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241563901/en/index.html

Journée mondiale contre le paludisme en Afrique 2010 mise à jour http://rbm.who.int/ProgressImpactSeries/docs/wmd2010report-en.pdf


Financement du paludisme et l'utilisation des ressources: la première décennie de la GAR (RBM 2010)

http://rbm.who.int/ProgressImpactSeries/docs/RBMMalariaFinancingReport-en.pdf

Title

Paludismo

Burkina_Faso

Résumé analytique

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Au Burkina Faso, le paludisme est endémique [1] dans tous les districts sanitaires et toute la population est à risque, particulièrement les enfants de moins de 5 ans et les femmes enceintes.

Le pays est classé dans la catégorie des pays à transmission stable avec cependant une recrudescence saisonnière durant la période de mai à octobre [1].


Notes de fin: Référence, sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

  1. OMS. Profil paludisme Burkina Faso 2012. 381Ko

Burundi

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Le paludisme reste la 1ère cause de morbidité et de mortalité dans la population générale. En 2009, la proportion du paludisme parmi toutes les pathologies était estimée à 74%. Le taux de morbidité est passé de 36,23% en 2005 à 34,07 en 2010 avec un taux de mortalité dans les hôpitaux de 39,55% en 2005 et de 34,07% en 2010[1].

Les principales stratégies d’intervention en vigueur sont la prévention et le traitement précoce des cas. La prévention se fait par la promotion de l’utilisation des MII dans les ménages, la pulvérisation intra domiciliaire, assainissement du milieu, la mobilisation sociale.

Cameroon

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Cas de paludisme notifiés (en milliers), au Cameroun et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008
Cas de paludisme notifiés en milliers, au Cameroun et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Ethiopia

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Malaria is endemic in Ethiopia, with differing intensities of transmission. The disease is prevalent in areas below 2000 m altitude and is seasonal, with irregular transmission patterns. Areas below 2000 m altitude cover three quarters of the country’s land mass, with an estimated population of 52 million.[2] An epidemic occurs every 5–8 years in these areas, with frequent outbreaks within short periods. The last epidemic occurred in 2003 and recent outbreaks have been reported in consecutive years from 2006 until early 2010. With an average of more than 3 million clinical cases per year, malaria remains the biggest health problem in Ethiopia.

Although malaria is a major cause of child mortality, only 33% of children under the age of 5 years sleep under an insecticide-treated bednet.[3] The disease burden is broad, going beyond the substantial health concerns it creates. The population may be forced to abandon productive areas and to concentrate in malaria-free areas that are exposed to constant food insecurity. As a result, substantial environmental and ecological degradation and loss of productive land has left a significant proportion of the population threatened by recurrent droughts and famine. In addition, malaria affects the learning capacity of schoolchildren due to constant non-attendance of school in the absence of treatment.

Eritrea

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Notified cases of malaria, in thousands, in Eritrea and neighboring countries, 2008
Notified cases of malaria, in thousands, in Eritrea and neighboring countries, 2008.JPG

...: No data

Equatorial_Guinea

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1. Le niveau central: constitué par la Direction Nationale de programme.

La direction centrale du programme dépend hiérarchiquement de la Direction General de Sante Publique et de la Planification sanitaire.

2. Le niveau intermédiaire : la coordination régionale de Bata

Pour assurer la durabilité du programme, il a été formé à l’extérieur les nouveaux techniciens (9) travaillant dans les différentes composantes: La Price en charge des cas, la lutte anti vectorielle, l’Information, Education et Communication (IEC), la gestion des médicaments, l’administration, la recherche, la pulvérisation intra-domiciliaire, la logistique et le marketing.

Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo

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Cas de paludisme notifiés (en millions) en R. D. Congo et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008
Cas de paludisme notifiés en millions en R. D. Congo et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008.JPG

Côte_d'Ivoire

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

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Le paludisme constitue un problème majeur de santé publique en Côte d’Ivoire. En effet, ce fléau représente la première cause de morbidité et de mortalité en Côte d’Ivoire, chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. En 2008, l'incidence du paludisme dans la population générale était de 84,16‰. Chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans, cette pathologie avait une incidence de 217,31‰[4].

Charge de morbidité

Politiques et stratégies d'intervention

Application du controle du paludisme

Financement du controle du paludisme

Etat de la surveillance

Impact des interventions de controle du paludisme

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

References

  1. Rapport PNILP, 2010
  2. Ethiopian national malaria indicator survey, 2007. Technical summary (pdf 173.25kb). Addis Ababa, Government of Ethiopia, Ministry of Health, 2008
  3. World malaria report, 2010 (pdf 9.85Mb). Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010
  4. Annuaire des statistiques sanitaires 2007-2008

Congo

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Notified cases of malaria, in thousands, in Congo and neighboring countries, 2008
Notified cases of malaria in thousands in Congo and neighboring countries 2008.JPG

...: No data

Comoros

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

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L’Union des Comores comme bien d’autres pays endémiques du continent, a fait de la lutte contre le Paludisme la priorité nationale compte tenu de son ampleur. Les données disponibles en 2006, indiquent que le paludisme est responsable de plus de 38% des consultations externes et de 60% des hospitalisations dans les structures sanitaires et représente 42 % de la morbidité générale.

Distribution de moistiquaire dans un village

Le paludisme est en effet une endémie stable avec une forte prévalence tout au long de l’année et des poussées en fonction des saisons et des régions. Les quatre espèces plasmodiales responsables du paludisme humain sont présentes aux Comores avec une forte prédominance du Plasmodium falciparum (96%). Plasmodium malariae représente environ 2%, Plasmodium vivax 1,5% et Plasmodium ovale (0,5%).


Charge de morbidité

Politiques et stratégies d'intervention

Application du controle du paludisme

Financement du controle du paludisme

Etat de la surveillance

Impact des interventions de controle du paludisme

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Chad

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Cas de paludisme notifiés (en milliers), au Tchad et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008
Cas de paludisme notifiés en milliers, au Tchad et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Central_African_Republic

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Cas de paludisme notifiés (en millions) en République Centrafricaine et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008
Cas de paludisme notifiés en millions en République Centrafricaine et dans les pays limitrophes, 2008.JPG

Cape_Verde

IlhadoSal.jpg

O Paludismo, ou Malaria, foi introduzido em Cabo Verde no Século XVI, sendo as ilhas mais afectadas na altura as de São Vicente, Sal, Maio, Boa Vista e Santiago.

Nos anos 40 do século XX representava 55% dos internamentos, pelo que várias missões do Instituto Português de Medicina Tropical para estudo clínico e laboratorial sobre o paludismo foram realizadas, tendo-se criado em consequência a Missão Permanente de Estudos e Combate de Endemias, mais tarde Missão para a Erradicação do Paludismo, cuja acção acabou por erradicar a doença no Sal em 1950, São Vicente em 1954, nas ilhas de Boa Vista e Maio em 1962, no Fogo em 1965 e na ilha de Santiago em 1968.