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Country Summary

Zimbabwe

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Namibia

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Mozambique

O peso de doenças não transmissíveis tem aumentado em Moçambique nos últimos 10 anos, enquanto as doenças transmissíveis ainda continuam a ser a principal causas de morbilidade e mortalidade. Este aumento de DNT pode ser atribuído ao envelhecimento da população, uma significativa urbanização (33% da população moçambicana vivem em cidades) e globalização.

O consumo excessivo de álcool e o uso de tabaco são os primeiros dois factores de risco para a saúde. Outros factores incluem dietas inadequadamente nutricionais, baixos níveis de actividade física e sobrepeso/obesidade.

Quanto ao consumo de álcool, estimativas em adultos ( 15 anos) indicavam em 2008 um consumo de 2.3 litros de álcool puro por pessoa por ano. Em relação ao tabaco na faixa etária  15 anos, informação de 2009 indicava uma prevalência de consumo de qualquer produto do tabaco de 18% nos homens e 2% nas mulheres. Nos adolescentes no período 2005-2009, a prevalência foi de 13% nos homens e 7% nas mulheres.

Mauritius

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Mauritania

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Mali

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Sierra_Leone

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Kenya

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Kenya and neighboring countries, 2006
Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Kenya and neighboring countries, 2006.JPG

...: No data

Guinea-Bissau

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Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus en Guinée-Bissau et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006
Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus en Guinée-Bissau et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Guinea

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Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus en Guinée et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006
Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus en Guinée et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Ghana

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Ghana and neighboring countries, 2006
Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Ghana and neighboring countries, 2006.JPG

...: No data

Niger

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Nigeria

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Seychelles

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Zambia

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Uganda

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Togo

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Tanzania

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Swaziland

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

South_Sudan

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

South_Africa

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Senegal

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Rwanda

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Sao_Tome_and_Principe

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.


Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus au Sao Tomé-et-principe et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006
Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus au Sao Tome-et-principe et dans les pays limitrophes par sexe en pourcentage 2006.JPG

Gambia

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Analytical summary

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

A study conducted in the Gambia in 2008 by WHO and a local nongovernmental organization, the International Organization of Good Templers, shows a 24.5% prevalence rate of smoking among 13–15 year olds. The results of the 2010 WHO STEPwise survey on noncommunicable disease risk factors also shows a 31.3% prevalence rate of smoking among people aged 25–34 years. The banning of cigarette advertisements and public smoking shows the Government`s commitment to reducing ill health among the population, especially in the young population.

The 2010 WHO STEPwise survey also reveals that about 2% of the adult population aged 25–64 years drinks alcohol.


Alcohol consumption

Drug use

Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases

Risky sexual behaviour

Hygiene (students)

State of surveillance

Endnotes: Sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Botswana

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Analytical summary

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

The Government of Botswana's revised National Health Policy 2011 recognizes lifestyles that play an important role in health, particularly those linked to the increasing rates of noncommunicable diseases or their risk factors, such as obesity and stressful living conditions. Lifestyles of major concern in the country include smoking, unhealthy eating, alcohol use and abuse, and risky sexual behaviours.

The Global Youth Tobacco Surveys, conducted in 2008 on young people aged 13–15 years from 50 schools across the country, showed a smoking prevalence rate of 14.3% among the survey participants. The average adult per capita consumption of alcohol in Botswana is estimated at 8 litres of pure alcohol per inhabitant per year while the regional average is 7 litres per year. Alcohol has been linked to gender-based violence and the spread of HIV.


Alcohol consumption

Drug use

Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases

Risky sexual behaviour

Hygiene (students)

State of surveillance

Endnotes: Sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

Angola

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Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Angola and neighboring countries, 2006
Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Angola and neighboring countries 2006.JPG

...: No data

Algeria

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Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Algeria and neighboring countries, 2006
Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Algeria and neighboring countries 2006.JPG

...: No data

Benin

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Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus au Benin et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006
Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus au Benin et dans les pays limitrophes par sexe en pourcentage 2006.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Malawi

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Madagascar

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

Liberia

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

The burden of noncommunicable diseases is unknown in Liberia. Although some hospital-based studies were conducted, especially in the JFK Medical Center, St Joseph’s Catholic Hospital and the Firestone Hospital, the scope of these studies was limited to complications related to hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

Before 2010, there was no programme on noncommunicable diseases, partly because of many years of conflict coupled with the weak health system. It is likely that the burden of noncommunicable diseases could be increasing silently among the general population.

Lesotho

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

This analytical profile on risk factors for health is structured as follows:

5.1.1 Analytical summary
5.1.2 Alcohol consumption
5.1.3 Drug use
5.1.4 Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
5.1.4.1 Tobacco use
5.1.4.2 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.1.4.3 Physical activity
5.1.4.4 Overweight and obesity
5.1.4.5 Blood pressure
5.1.4.6 Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements
5.1.4.7 Summary of combined risk factors
5.1.5 Risky sexual behaviour
5.1.6 Hygiene (students)
5.1.7 State of surveillance

AFRO

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Analytical summary

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Recent decades have seen significant increases in noncommunicable diseases in the WHO African Region, in addition to the long-standing burden of infectious disease. This can be attributed to three main factors, namely population ageing, rapid urbanization and globalization.

Alcohol abuse, drug abuse and tobacco use are high on the list of critical health risk factors in the Region. Only a small number of countries have alcohol control policies or advertising regulation in place and very few have any in-depth understanding of the nature and extent of drug use. Health services and interventions for those affected are few.


Alcohol consumption

Alcohol consumption (litres per person) among adults aged 15 years or older in the African Region, 2005

The disease burden from alcohol consumption is increasing in the African Region. In the year 2000, deaths attributable to harmful use of alcohol were estimated at 2.1%; in 2002 it had increased to 2.2%, and by 2004 to 2.4%[1] . Recent studies and surveillance data have provided some useful insights into alcohol use in the Region[2]. The two main characteristics are the high level of abstention in some countries, and the high volume of consumption, with the associated negative health and social consequences, in others. Problems in the African region result not only from the quantities of alcohol consumed[3], but from detrimental patterns of use. Overall, the adult per capita consumption of alcohol in the WHO African Region in 2004 was estimated at 6.2 litres of pure alcohol.

The WHO Global Survey on Alcohol and Health was carried out between 2008-2009. All 46 African countries participated in this survey, but only 10 were found to have recent alcohol policies in place, and only 16 countries had any advertising regulation. Many countries still do not operate systematic surveillance and monitoring systems. The absence of effective and adequate interventions, in the form of either outpatient or hospital care, is a harsh reality. Reasons include low or nonexistent budgetary allocations, general weakness of health systems, and lack of public health infrastructure.

To redress this situation, a strategy has been prepared and was submitted for the consideration of the WHO Regional Committee for Africa in September 2010, with a view to reducing harmful use of alcohol strengthening national capacities.

Drug use

Drug use is one of top 20 health risk factors worldwide, and is among the top 10 in developed countries. Drug use disorders are associated with increased risk for other diseases and health conditions, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis, suicides, overdose deaths, and cardiovascular diseases.

Trends in the use of the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine and amphetamines) suggest that their use is increasing across the African Region. Differences in drug use patterns are primarily determined by local availability. This increase is linked not only to rapid economic and social change, but also to the prevailing political instability in many African countries which leads in turn to poor law enforcement mechanisms, corruption, and the poverty that increases vulnerability to drug markets.

Significant increases in the availability of illicit drugs have been recorded in coastal areas. A wide range of west African countries, including Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Cameroon, Liberia, Côte D’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria, are used as transit platforms for the transport of cocaine. In east Africa, an increase in drug trafficking for heroin has also been reported in the coastal regions of countries such as Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique, and Mauritius. Finally, evidence suggests that Ethiopia, Zambia and Uganda are vulnerable to becoming new drug transit countries (UNODC, 2007). Sixteen countries are thought to account for approximately 53% of the total drug-using population in the region[4].

Data on HIV/AIDS risk among drug using populations in these countries clearly indicate high levels of risky behaviour due to needle-sharing and unprotected sex.

The prevention and treatment of drug dependence are essential to the reduction of demand for illicit drugs and prevention of drug-related harm. Comprehensive awareness programmes in schools and communities can play an important role in postponing the initiation of drug use and reducing drug use. Drug treatment programmes are also crucial in reducing the associated health risks, including HIV/AIDS.

The current limited understanding in African countries of the nature and extent of drug use hampers a targeted response. Absence of surveillance systems also limits ability to identify emerging drug use patterns. Public health approaches to drug-demand reduction are nonexistent, or poorly structured. Successful evidence-based measures used internationally to address drug use and HIV are also largely missing in African context.

Inadequate funding, insufficient skilled health professionals, poor laboratory facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, and lack of political will are some of the impediments to controlling substance abuse in the African Region. Resources invested in formal control measures will not yield maximum effect if not combined with measures to prevent drug use and treat drug dependence. To address these shortcomings will require a coordinated approach among the various sectors involved. For this reason, UNODC and WHO have agreed to undertake a joint programme, strengthening their collaboration on drug dependence treatment and care, sharing intervention networks, and interacting with other intergovernmental organizations and Member States on a common basis. Cape Verde will be the first African country to have this joint programme implemented.

Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases

The main risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases are unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, and harmful use of alcohol. These factors, singly or in combination, lead to conditions of overweight and obesity, raised blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol levels, and chronic respiratory conditions that eventually lead to disease. Globally, high blood pressure is thought to account for 13% of mortality, tobacco use for 9%, high blood glucose levels for 6%, physical inactivity for 6%, and overweight and obesity for 5%.

In May 2004, the World Health Assembly endorsed Resolution WHA57.17: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (DPAS)[5] and recommended that Member States develop national physical activity action plans and policies. Subsequently, the Sixty-first World Health Assembly endorsed a resolution and related action plan on the prevention and control of NCDs[6]. A number of resolutions on tobacco control have been passed.

Tobacco use

In 2003, the Fifty-sixth World Health Assembly adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) as a response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic. The Convention provides guidelines on tobacco control measures for implementation by Parties to the Convention.

The Fifty-fifth session of the WHO Regional Committee for Africa in 2005 adopted the document, “Implementation of the FCTC in the African Region: current status and way forward,” (AFR/RC55/13) which lays out steps for implementing the Convention. The Regional Committee also recommended that Member States ratify the FCTC, emphasizing the need to develop and implement national plans of action and legislations in accordance with the FCTC.

In 2008, the Conference of Parties held in Durban, South Africa, noted the significant progress made by the African Region in implementing the Convention. Notwithstanding, the Region is now experiencing an increase in the rate of tobacco use, due to both intensification of marketing efforts by the tobacco industry, and rapid population growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts are therefore being made to accelerate the implementation of the Convention in African countries.

By the end of 2009, 40 of the 46 countries of the African Region had ratified or acceded to the FCTC treaty. All Parties have national focal points and 19 have developed and implemented national tobacco control programmes, linked in some instances to health education programmes[7].

Approximately half of all Member States have measures in place to prevent or limit smoking, tobacco exposure, or advertising. A protocol on illicit trade is being negotiated and Parties from the African Region are actively participating. All Parties identified lack of financial resources as a major challenge to implementing the Convention, although funding and technical support are received from regional organizations, academic institutions, international nongovernmental organizations, and philanthropic bodies.

Fruit and vegetable consumption

Low fruit and vegetable intake is an important contributor to mortality rates, especially in low and middle-income countries. Most of the benefit of consuming fruits and vegeta¬bles derives from a reduction in cardiovascular disease, but they also prevent a number of cancers.

Economic, cultural and agricultural factors influence the amount of fruits and vegetables consumed. In the African Region the intake of fruit and vegetable varies considerably among and within countries. It is, however, generally low, and few individuals consume the recommended daily amount of five servings or 400 grams. Sensitization programmes are being carried out in countries on the need to increase production and consumption of fruits and vegetables.

Physical activity

It has been shown that participation in regular physical activity reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer and depression. Additionally, physical activity is a key determinant of energy expenditure, so is fundamental to energy balance and weight control. Lack of physical activity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, responsible for 6% of deaths globally[8]. Physical inactivity is estimated to cause around 21–25% of breast and colon cancer burden, 27% of diabetes and around 30% of ischaemic heart disease burden[8].

Levels of physical inactivity are moderately high and probably rising in many African countries, with major implications for both general health and the prevalence of NCDs. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, blood pressure, raised blood sugar, and excess weight are likely to be exacerbated in the absence of physical exercise.

Most physical activity among African populations is associated with occupational activities, especially in rural areas.

The Global Strategy on NCDs (2008-2013) recommends the following actions:

  • Develop and implement national guidelines on physical activity for health;
  • Introduce transport policies that promote active and safe methods of travelling to and from schools and workplaces, such as walking or cycling;
  • Ensure that physical environments support safe active commuting, and create space for recreational activity.

A number of training workshops on diet and physical activity, and the prevention of NCDs, have been held in various countries to promote the development and implementation of policies and programmes to control NCDs. Several Member States have now included physical activity as a key component of their national NCD prevention and control strategy.

Overweight and obesity

In 2005, according to WHO estimates, more than one billion people worldwide were overweight (BMI >25) and more than 300 million were obese (BMI >30). Mean body mass index, overweight and obesity levels are increasing worldwide, due to changes in diet and level of physical activity. Individuals of all ages and all over the world are affected or are at risk of this condition, which is currently responsible for 5% of deaths worldwide. In several countries of the African Region this condition has reached epidemic proportions (Fig. 4) and levels above 30-50% are being documented in adults. The highest rates are seen in women.

Figure 4: Percentage of adults with overweight and obesity - AFRO STEPS Database 2003-2009

Fig24section411RiskFactorfig4 Overweight&Obesity.png


Over the past decades, significant changes in diet and lifestyle have occurred everywhere. These have influenced the type and amount of food consumed, as well as the amount of physical activity performed. Forces such as urbanization and globalization have led the change, which has also been experienced in other areas such as transportation, the home, and the workplace. Many individuals, particularly those on low incomes, are now consuming excessive amounts of calorie dense and often nutritionally poor foods, while taking little physical activity. Increasing levels of overweight and obesity in all sectors of the population are being seen, with significantly higher levels among women. This tendency towards excess weight co-exists with malnutrition, especially among children.2 Early childhood undernutrition may increase the risk of NCDs in adulthood, especially when later diets high in sugars and fats are adopted, and with reduced physical activity.

Blood pressure

More than 20 million people suffer from hypertension in the African Region, with a prevalence rate ranging from 25–35% in adults aged 25–64 years, and a clear upward trend. (6) The condition is now common in most Member States (Fig. 5).

Figure 5: Percentage of adults with raised Blood Pressure -AFRO STEPS Database 2003-2009.

Fig25section411RiskFactorfig5 BloodPresure.png


Raised blood pressure increases the risk of stroke, heart disease, and kidney failure. Dietary factors, particularly high salt consumption, alcohol, lack of physical activity and obesity all raise blood pressure, with cumulative effect over time. Globally, 51% of stroke (cerebrovascular disease) and 45% of ischaemic heart disease deaths are attrib¬utable to high systolic blood pressure. At any given age, the risk of dying from high blood pressure in low and middle-income countries is more than double that in high-income countries[9].

Blood glucose and cholesterol measurements

High blood glucose and cholesterol levels are risk factors for diabetes and coronary heart disease. These conditions result from an unhealthy diet (rich in sugars and fats and poor in fruits, vegetables and nutrients) and physical inactivity. If not suitably controlled, they lead to ill health and increased risk of complications. Ill health due to these factors contributes significantly to mortality in low and middle-income countries. Diabetes deaths are projected to increase by as much as 42%.3 In several countries where data on fasting blood glucose are available through STEPS surveys covering the period 2003–2009, prevalence of diabetes in the range 5-15% is documented.

Only a small number of African countries document national cholesterol levels, and these are generally low except for the wealthier countries such as Mauritius, where elevated cholesterol levels have been seen in 30% of the population[10] and where high rates of NCDs prevail.

Summary of combined risk factors

Many diseases are caused by multiple risk fac¬tors, and can therefore be prevented by reducing any of the responsible risk factors. In these cases, the sum of mortality or burden of disease attributa¬ble to each of the risk factors separately is often more than that of the combined mortality and burden of disease attributable to a group of risk factors. Forty-five percent of cardiovascular deaths among individuals more than 30 years old can be attributed to raised blood pressure, 16% to raised cholesterol, and 13% to raised blood glucose, yet the estimated combined effect of these three risks is about 48% of cardiovascular disease alone.

In African countries, the presence of multiple risk factors in the same individual is common (Fig. 7). National surveys have found that 15–35% of adults have 3 or more risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases.

Figure 7: Percentage of adults aged 25-64 years with 3 or more risk factors - AFRO STEPS Database 2003-2009

Fig26section411RiskFactorfig7 .png

Risky sexual behaviour

Sexual behaviour varies greatly between countries and regions. In 2004, unsafe sex was responsible for more than 99% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa – the only region where more women than men are infected. HIV/AIDS prevalence continues to be high among young people in the African Region, especially females.

HIV/AIDS is the world’s sixth greatest cause of death, responsible for 2 million deaths in 2004. HIV/AIDS deaths have stabilized and begun to decline in the last few years, partly due to increasing access to treatment and partly related to changing patterns of sexual behaviour in heavily affected African countries. Currently, 22 million, or 67%, of the 33 million people with HIV live in Africa, and the virus continues to have a heavy impact. Life expectancy at birth in the African Region was 49 years in 2004, whereas without AIDS it would have been 53 years.

A number of other infections result from risky sexual behaviour. The human papillomavirus, responsible for all cervical cancer, is attributed to sexual trans¬mission. Cervical can¬cer accounts for 11% of global deaths due to unsafe sex, and is the leading cause of cancer death in the African Region. Other sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamy¬dia are entirely attributable to unsafe sex, and still occur in a number of African countries. Almost three quarters of the global burden of unsafe sex occurs in sub-Saharan Africa.

Hygiene (students)

Poor hygiene, unsafe water and lack of sanitation constitute important risk factors, especially in middle and low-income countries. Children are particularly at risk. Many African homes and schools, especially in rural areas, have neither adequate nor safe water, nor any form of improved sanitation. Lack of safe water and sanitation greatly increases the risk of diarrhoeal disease, intestinal helminths, schistosomiasis, trachoma, and Hepatitis A.

Improvements in the quality and quantity of drinking-water, together with provision of basic sanitation and maintaining focus on hand-washing programmes, will do more to control disease than many medical interventions.

State of surveillance

STEPS

The WHO STEPwise survey methodology for chronic disease risk factor surveillance was originally started in a small number of low and middle- income countries a decade ago, but since then great progress has been made in generating new country-specific risk factor data on NCDs. A large number of countries have adopted STEPS or are using a modified STEPS approach. Countries increasingly report that having their own reliable data on risk factors leads to better awareness and greater commitment to addressing NCDs. These data are also valuable in setting up evaluation mechanisms at the national level.

In the African Region, baseline data on risk factors and trends over time have been largely in short supply. Recently, however, there has been significant progress. Risk factor surveillance has served as an entry point for developing NCD control policies and programmes in African countries, starting with an initial survey and following up with the development of a national policy and programme formulation process. STEPS "Data to Action" workshops, piloted in several African countries, have helped to accelerate this process by focusing on how recent, reliable STEPS data can help a country identify its NCD priorities. By mid-2010, 29 Member States had completed NCD disease and risk factor STEPS surveys.

Global Youth Tobacco Survey

WHO and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to track tobacco use among young people across countries using a common methodology and core questionnaire. The GYTS surveillance system is intended to enhance countries’ capacity to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programmes. Funding for the GYTS has been provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Canadian Public Health Association, the National Cancer Institute, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization’s Tobacco Free Initiative. By mid-2010, 43 African countries had completed a GYTS.

Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS)

The GSHS is a relatively low-cost school-based survey that uses a self-administered questionnaire to obtain data on young people's health behaviour and protective factors related to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children and adults worldwide. In the African Region the Global School Health Survey (GSHS) has been completed in 15 countries[11].

Integrated database

The results of all these surveys (STEPS, GYTS and GSHS) are available through the African Integrated Database. While in the year 2000 very little data on NCD risk factors was available, many countries now have good data that are being used in the development of policies and programmes.

Endnotes: Sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

List of Tables and Figures

From original paper:

Figure 4: Percentage of adults with overweight and obesity - AFRO STEPS Database 2003-2009

Figure 5: Percentage of adults with raised Blood Pressure -AFRO STEPS Database 2003-2009.

Figure 7: Percentage of adults aged 25-64 years with 3 or more risk factors - AFRO STEPS Database 2003-2009

Original Figure numbers left in text in case of need to identify in original paper.


References

1. Rehm et al. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet 2009; 373: 2223–33.

2. Global Information System on Alcohol and Health – GISAH, http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/default.asp; South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (SACENDU), http://www.sahealthinfo.org/admodule/sacendu.htm; Obot IS, Alcohol use and related problems in sub-Saharan Africa, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies 5(1): 17–26, 2006. Roerecke, M., Volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking and burden of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2002. African Journal of Drug&Alcohol Studies, 7(1), 2008.

3. Estimated mean of 20.24 litres of pure alcohol per drinker resident aged 15 or over, higher than the global consumption rate estimated to be 15.8 litres. In Rehm, J et al., Alcohol, social development and infectious disease. Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Sweden, 2009.

4. Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Face to face meeting . Vienna International Centre, Vienna, 3rd – 5th March 2010.

5. Resolution WHA57.17. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. In: Fiftyseventh World Health Assembly, Geneva, 17–22 May 2004. Resolutions and decisions, annexes. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004

6. 2008–2013 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008.

7. Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana , Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Togo and Uganda.

8. The health of the People. The African Regional Health Report, 2006. WHO

9. Mauritius Non Communicable Disease Survey 2009 http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/moh/file/ncd/ncd-2009.pdf

References

  1. Rehm et al. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet 2009; 373: 2223–33.
  2. Global Information System on Alcohol and Health – GISAH, http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/default.asp; South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (SACENDU), http://www.sahealthinfo.org/admodule/sacendu.htm; Obot IS, Alcohol use and related problems in sub-Saharan Africa, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies 5(1): 17–26, 2006. Roerecke, M., Volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking and burden of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2002. African Journal of Drug&Alcohol Studies, 7(1), 2008.
  3. Estimated mean of 20.24 litres of pure alcohol per drinker resident aged 15 or over, higher than the global consumption rate estimated to be 15.8 litres. In Rehm, J et al., Alcohol, social development and infectious disease. Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Sweden, 2009.
  4. Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Face to face meeting. Vienna International Centre, Vienna, 3rd – 5th March 2010.
  5. Resolution WHA57.17. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. In: Fiftyseventh World Health Assembly, Geneva, 17–22 May 2004. Resolutions and decisions, annexes. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004
  6. 2008–2013 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008.
  7. Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana , Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Togo and Uganda
  8. 8.0 8.1 Global Information System on Alcohol and Health – GISAH, http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/default.asp; South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (SACENDU), http://www.sahealthinfo.org/admodule/sacendu.htm; Obot IS, Alcohol use and related problems in sub-Saharan Africa, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies 5(1): 17–26, 2006. Roerecke, M., Volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking and burden of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2002. African Journal of Drug&Alcohol Studies, 7(1), 2008.
  9. The health of the People- The African Regional Health Report, WHO 2006
  10. Mauritius Noncommunicable Disease Survey, 2009 (http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/moh/file/ncd/ncd-2009.pdf
  11. Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana , Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Togo and Uganda.

Title

Factores de risco para a saúde

Burkina_Faso

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Peu d’études sont disponibles sur les facteurs de risques en santé. La consommation d’alcool et de tabac ainsi que la faiblesse des infrastructures d’hygiène et d’assainissement sont des facteurs de risque certains pour la santé.

Selon une enquête à l’université de Ouagadougou (SOMEF, 1991), 74 % des étudiants enquêtés déclarent avoir consommé de l’alcool. L’âge moyen de la première consommation d’alcool se situe à 14 ans. Les jeunes du milieu urbain sont les plus touchés. L’alcoolisme se manifeste souvent sous forme aiguë.

La consommation de tabac chez les jeunes est une réalité préoccupante au Burkina Faso et commence de plus en plus tôt. Selon SOURA Y. (1994), dans les établissements secondaires du Burkina Faso, 13,6% des élèves fument dont 4,2% régulièrement. Selon l’enquête réalisée par l’Association Burkinabé de Santé Publique (ABSP) sur « tabac auprès des adolescents du milieu scolaire de Ouaga et Bobo (13-15 ans) », 20,4% déclarent avoir fumé une ou plusieurs fois par jour dans les 30 jours qui ont précédé l’enquête.

Burundi

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Certains facteurs de risque essentiels auxquels sont exposées les populations sont ceux en rapport avec leurs styles de vie malsains tels que la consommation excessive d’alcool et l’usage des drogues, la consommation du tabac [1], l’hygiène corporelle et vestimentaire précaire, le manque d’activités physiques exposant au surpoids et à l’obésité eux même favorisant la survenue des maladies chroniques non transmissibles telles que le diabète et les maladies cardiovasculaires.

La [2] consommation excessive d’alcool est un des facteurs importants dans la survenue des accidents de la voie publique qui sont très fréquents dans le pays. Pour le moment, la surveillance de ces facteurs de risque n’est pas appliquée et par conséquent l’état de morbidité et de mortalité n’est pas maîtrisé.


Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Référence

  1. Profil tabac 2013. 200Ko
  2. Profil consommation alcool 2011. 304Ko

Cameroon

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus au Cameroun et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006
Usage actuel du tabac chez les personnes de 15 ans ou plus au Cameroun et dans les pays limitrophes, par sexe, en pourcentage, 2006.JPG

...: Données indisponibles

Ethiopia

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

The rapid economic transformation of Ethiopia has increasingly been accompanied by changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviour that are contributing to a rising risk of preventable chronic illness. These chronic diseases risk factors include high blood pressure, inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables, overweight or obesity, high concentrations of cholesterol in the blood, physical inactivity and tobacco use.

The leading causes of the major noncommunicable diseases are unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the WHO African Region, noncommunicable diseases are projected to account for more than a quarter of all deaths by 2015. It is also estimated that the rate of increase of deaths from chronic diseases in the Region will exceed that from infectious disease, maternal and prenatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies by more than fourfold in the next 10 years.

Gabon

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Bien que la situation épidémiologique du Gabon soit caractérisée par la persistance des maladies transmissibles infectieuses et parasitaires qui constituent le gros de la mortalité et de la charge de morbidité, la montée en puissance des maladies non transmissibles est désormais indéniable.

A ces maladies sont associés des facteurs de risque qui ont une incidence sur la santé et l’espérance de vie des populations. L’enquête sur les facteurs de risque des maladies non transmissibles à Libreville et Owendo menée en 2009 a montré qu’une proportion non négligeable de la population gabonaise y était exposée, et que les acteurs du système sanitaire devraient à l’avenir prendre cela en compte, s’impliquer davantage dans la prévention de ces risques pour freiner la progression des MNT.

Ceci passe par le suivi de l’évolution des facteurs de risque identifiés et l’élaboration de plans stratégiques nationaux pour les réduire.

Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Eritrea

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Eritrea and neighboring countries, 2006
Percent of current tobacco use in persons 15 years of age or older in Eritrea and neighboring countries, 2006.JPG

...: No data

Equatorial_Guinea

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Chad

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Comoros

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

O conteúdo em Portugês estará disponível em breve.

Construction de latrines puvliques dans un village

Les pays à faible revenu sont confrontés ces dernières décennies à la recrudescence des maladies chroniques favorisées par la malnutrition, les changements du mode de vie, la diminution de l’activité physique, le tabagisme et la consommation de l’alcool.

L’insuffisance de l’information et la méconnaissance des facteurs de risque en vue de prendre les actions appropriées, accroissent de façon significative l’augmentation de la prévalence de ces pathologies auprès des populations, (plus particulièrement les plus démunies). La prise en charge onéreuse de ces maladies dégrade davantage les conditions déjà précaires des populations de nos pays.


Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Côte_d'Ivoire

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Congo

La bonne santé repose sur l’existence d’un système de santé de qualité, universel, complet, équitable, efficace, répondant aux besoins et accessible, mais dépend aussi de la participation d’autres secteurs et acteurs, et du dialogue avec eux, dans la mesure où leur action a des conséquences importantes sur la santé.

Les inégalités en matière de santé sont le fruit des déterminants sociaux de la santé, c’est-à-dire des conditions sociétales dans lesquelles les individus naissent, grandissent, vivent, travaillent et vieillissent.

Ces déterminants englobent les expériences vécues dans les premières années de la vie, l’éducation, le statut économique, l’emploi, le travail décent, le logement et l’environnement, et l’efficacité des systèmes de prévention et de traitement des maladies.

Central_African_Republic

Esta seção do perfil do sistema de saúde está estruturado da seguinte forma:

Résumé analytique

Consommation d'Alcool

Usage de drogue

Facteurs de risque pour les maladies chroniques

Comportements sexuels à risque

Hygiène de vie (étudiants)

Etat de la surveillance

Notes de fin: sources, méthodes, abréviations, etc.

Cape_Verde

O primeiro inquérito nacional sobre os factores de risco para as doenças não transmissíveis realizado em 2007 (IDNT), definiu algumas situações problemáticas nomeadamente em relação ao elevado consumo do álcool: 53,2% dos inquiridos tinham consumido álcool nos últimos 12 meses anteriores ao inquérito dos quais 77,8% homens e 30% mulheres. Ainda neste grupo (últimos 12 meses), 15,4% dos homens e 3,4% das mulheres referiram um consumo diário do álcool.

Market.jpg

Ainda, segundo o IDNT, constatou-se que apenas 13% da população tem um consumo de frutas e legumes dentro dos padrões recomendados. O sobre peso e a obesidade apresentaram índices preocupantes, 26,4% e 10,6%, respectivamente com maior incidência nas mulheres, 28,0% e 14,6% respectivamente. A prevalência do consumo do tabaco situou-se à volta de 10% sendo maior nos homens que nas mulheres.